What Is Automated Market Marker (AMM)

What Is Automated Market Marker (AMM)

An Automated Market Maker (AMM) is a type of decentralized financial protocol that facilitates the trading of digital assets without the need for traditional intermediaries like brokers or market makers. AMMs use algorithms and smart contracts to provide liquidity and determine asset prices based on a predetermined formula. They allow users to trade, buy, and sell cryptocurrencies directly from their digital wallets.

Role Of AMM In Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

AMMs play a pivotal role in the Decentralized Finance (DeFi) ecosystem. DeFi refers to a set of financial services and applications built on blockchain technology that aims to recreate traditional financial instruments in a decentralized and permissionless manner. AMMs provide liquidity to decentralized exchanges (DEXs), enabling users to swap one cryptocurrency for another without relying on centralized intermediaries.

The Key Roles of AMM In DeFi include

Enabling seamless and instant token swaps for users.

Facilitating liquidity provision by allowing users to pool their funds into liquidity pools.

Reducing reliance on centralized exchanges and their associated risks.

Empowering users to participate in yield farming and liquidity mining to earn rewards.

Evolution From Traditional Market Making

Traditional market-making involves financial institutions and intermediaries that facilitate trading in traditional financial markets. These market makers use their capital to buy and sell assets, profiting from the spread between bid and ask prices.

The evolution from traditional market-making to AMM involves several key shifts:

Decentralization: AMMs operate on decentralized networks like Ethereum, eliminating the need for intermediaries.

Algorithmic Price Determination: Instead of human market makers setting prices, AMMs use mathematical formulas to determine prices based on supply and demand.

Liquidity Pools: AMMs introduce the concept of liquidity pools, where users provide assets to the protocol in exchange for pool tokens. These pools serve as the foundation for trading and price determination.

24/7 Accessibility: AMMs operate 24/7, providing continuous access to trading and liquidity provision.

Incentive Mechanisms: AMMs incentivize liquidity providers and traders through trading fees and yield farming opportunities.

The evolution of AMMs has democratized trading and liquidity provision, allowing a broader range of users to participate in financial markets without needing extensive capital or specialized knowledge.

Core Concepts Of AMM

A. Liquidity Pools

A liquidity pool in the context of AMMs refers to a smart contract that contains a reserve of two or more different tokens. These pools serve as a source of liquidity for users who want to trade these tokens. Liquidity providers deposit their tokens into these pools in exchange for liquidity pool tokens, which represent their share of the pool’s liquidity.

Liquidity pools address the issue of market liquidity on decentralized exchanges by enabling trades to be executed without relying on a counterparty. Users can swap tokens instantly by interacting with the liquidity pool’s smart contract, which calculates the exchange rate based on the relative amounts of tokens in the pool.

Composition of Liquidity Pools

Liquidity pools consist of pairs of tokens. For instance, a common example is the ETH/DAI liquidity pool, where users can trade Ether (ETH) for DAI stablecoins. The tokens within a pool are provided by liquidity providers who deposit an equal value of both tokens, maintaining a balanced ratio. This balance ensures that the pool’s price remains in line with the external market price.

B. Token Swaps

AMM as a Trading Mechanism

AMMs allow users to swap one token for another directly from a liquidity pool, without the need for order books or traditional order matching mechanisms. Users can perform token swaps by interacting with the AMM’s smart contract.

Constant Product Formula

The most common AMM formula is the Constant Product Formula, popularized by the Uniswap protocol. According to this formula, the product of the quantities of two tokens in a pool is a constant. Mathematically, if ‘x’ and ‘y’ represent the quantities of two tokens and ‘k’ is the constant, then x * y = k. As a result, when a user makes a trade, the AMM adjusts the quantities of tokens in the pool while keeping the product constant.

Price Impact and Slippage

Price impact refers to the change in the price of a token as a result of a trade. In AMMs, when a trade occurs, the pool’s token quantities change, causing the price of the traded tokens to move along the constant product curve. This change in price can result in slippage, which is the difference between the expected price and the executed price of a trade due to the trade’s impact on the pool’s liquidity.

Slippage is important for traders to consider, as larger trades can lead to increased price impact and higher slippage. Traders may need to adjust their trade sizes to minimize slippage.

Operating Principles Of AMMs

A. Liquidity Providers (LPs)

Definition and Role

Liquidity Providers (LPs) are individuals or entities that contribute their funds to liquidity pools within AMMs. They play a crucial role in the AMM ecosystem by supplying tokens to the pools, which enables users to trade those tokens easily. LPs effectively act as market makers, facilitating trades and improving liquidity on decentralized exchanges.

Providing Liquidity and Earning Fees

tokens to liquidity pools

LPs contribute pairs of tokens to liquidity pools in proportion to their market values. By doing so, they allow users to trade between these tokens. In return for their contribution, LPs receive liquidity pool tokens representing their share of the pool. These tokens can be redeemed for a proportional amount of the pooled tokens at any time.

LPs earn fees from traders who execute swaps within the liquidity pool. These fees are typically a small percentage of the trade’s value and are distributed among all LPs in proportion to their share of the liquidity pool. Earnings are accrued as traders interact with the AMM, providing LPs with a potential source of passive income.

B. Price Determination

Supply and Demand Dynamics

The price of tokens within an AMM’s liquidity pool is determined by supply and demand. As users trade tokens, the relative quantities of tokens in the pool change, causing the price to adjust to maintain equilibrium with the external market price. A higher demand for one token will increase its price relative to the other token, and vice versa.

Automated Price Adjustments

AMMs use mathematical formulas, like the constant product formula (x * y = k), to ensure that the product of token quantities remains constant after each trade. When a trade occurs, the token quantities in the pool are automatically adjusted to reflect the trade’s impact, which leads to a change in the price. This automated adjustment mechanism allows the AMM to maintain an accurate and up-to-date price for the tokens being traded.

C. Fee Structure

Trading Fees

AMMs charge trading fees on each swap that occurs within a liquidity pool. These fees are usually a small percentage of the trade amount and are collected to incentivize liquidity providers and contribute to the sustainability of the AMM protocol.

Fee Distribution to LPs

The trading fees collected by the AMM are distributed to liquidity providers. The distribution is typically proportional to each LP’s share of the liquidity pool. This rewards LPs for their participation in the ecosystem and encourages them to continue providing liquidity.

Types Of AMMs

A. Constant Function Market Makers (CFMMs)

Uniswap and its Variants

Uniswap is a well-known example of a Constant Function Market Maker (CFMM). It uses the constant product formula (x * y = k) to determine the prices of tokens in its liquidity pools. Uniswap’s initial success led to the creation of variants like Uniswap V2 and Uniswap V3, each introducing improvements and features to the AMM model.

B. Curve AMM

Focus on Stablecoin Swaps

Curve is an AMM that’s specifically designed for stablecoin swaps. Unlike other AMMs, Curve’s pools consist of assets with similar values (such as different stablecoins), which reduces slippage and provides users with low-risk trading options for stable assets. Curve’s algorithm is tailored to minimize the price impact of trading stablecoins.

C. Balancer AMM

Customizable Weighted Pools

Balancer introduces a more complex model by allowing liquidity providers to create customizable pools with multiple tokens and different weightings. This means that the pool can hold more than just two tokens, and the proportions of each token can be adjusted. Balancer’s design enables users to create pools with various allocations, making it useful for portfolio management and specific trading strategies.

D. Bancor Protocol

Continuous Liquidity Pools

The Bancor Protocol introduces a unique approach called “continuous liquidity pools.” In this model, tokens are always available for purchase and sale through smart contracts, even if there’s no other trader on the other side. The price of a token within a Bancor pool is determined by a formula that takes into account the balance of the token and the reserve.

Each type of AMM caters to different use cases and trading preferences within the decentralized finance (DeFi) ecosystem. They address various challenges and offer different features to users and liquidity providers.

Use Cases Of AMMs

A. Decentralized Exchanges (DEXs)

Providing Liquidity to DEXs

AMMs are a foundational component of decentralized exchanges (DEXs). They provide the liquidity necessary for seamless token swaps without relying on traditional order books. Liquidity providers deposit tokens into AMM liquidity pools, enabling users to trade tokens easily and efficiently. This liquidity provision enhances the trading experience on DEXs and reduces the risk of large price fluctuations due to low trading volumes.

Token Listing Mechanisms

AMMs can facilitate token listings on decentralized exchanges. Tokens that wish to be listed on DEXs can have liquidity pools created for them on AMM platforms. This approach eliminates the need for complex negotiations and listings processes often associated with centralized exchanges. Anyone can create a liquidity pool for a token, allowing for more democratized access to trading and listing.

B. Yield Farming and Liquidity Mining

Incentivizing Liquidity Provision

Yield Farming and Liquidity Mining

Yield farming and liquidity mining are strategies that incentivize users to provide liquidity to AMM pools by offering rewards in the form of additional tokens. Users deposit their tokens into liquidity pools and receive liquidity pool tokens in return. These pool tokens can then be staked in yield farming protocols, where users earn rewards for contributing to the protocol’s liquidity. This approach allows users to earn additional tokens beyond just trading fees.

AMM Governance Tokens

Many AMM platforms issue governance tokens to users who provide liquidity to their pools. These governance tokens grant holders the ability to participate in the decision-making process regarding the protocol’s future development, changes, and upgrades. This creates a sense of community ownership and decentralization, as decisions are made collectively by those who are actively participating in the ecosystem.


In summary, AMMs have several important use cases in the decentralized finance (DeFi) ecosystem. They power decentralized exchanges by providing liquidity and enabling token swaps. They also offer innovative mechanisms for incentivizing liquidity provision through yield farming and liquidity mining. Additionally, they contribute to decentralized governance through the issuance of governance tokens, allowing users to have a say in the evolution of the protocol.